# Atkinson's Tempo Field Theory - Chapter Summaries

## Part II - The Model and Cosmology

In this part the proofs developed in Part 1 are applied to our understanding of cosmology.

### Chapter 9

Neither Black nor a Hole

In this chapter it is shown that degenerative matter, black holes and singularities cannot be formed, due to an increase in the quantum energy of Pauli’s exclusion force. In addition it is shown that an event horizon cannot be formed because the escape velocity for light can be reached in all gravitational fields.

### Chapter 10

Stellar Remnants

A quantum explanation is put forward to show how gas clouds can lose heat quickly enough to allow the cloud to collapse. The way in which white dwarfs, pulsars and black dwarfs are formed is discussed. The argument is made for a large mass stellar remnant to replace black holes.

### Chapter 11

The Big Bang Defused

An incontrovertible alternative explanation for Hubble’s law is given that has been proved by experiment. This precludes an expanding universe.

### Chapter 12

Gravitational Redshift and the Time Delay of Light

An analysis is made of the redshift of light as it crosses the vast distances of space. We encounter hypoquantization of light and the dimming that has led to the false notion of an accelerating expansion of the universe.

### Chapter 13

The Doppler Effect and the Dilation of Time

An examination of the redshift of light due to the Doppler effect is undertaken, leading to a deeper understanding of the twins paradox, and the dilation of time. In particular which of the twins will see the other’s clock going slower when they are moving apart at high speed.

### Chapter 14

The Time Delay of Light and Simultaneity

Using Einstein’s own thought experiment but interpreting it differently, it is shown that simultaneity can exists for two events when viewed from different inertial frames. Thought experiments also show how the speed of light varies with time dilation, as does the frequency or energy of a photon.

### Chapter 15

The Myth of Dark Matter

The current belief by some scientists, that the apparent fast speeds of peripheral galaxies in a cluster is possible only because of an unseen dark matter, is shown to be flawed. The correct mathematical adjustments to the orbital dynamics, required by time and energy, solve the problem and do away with the necessity for dark matter. Dark energy is also shown to be no more than a misinterpretation of the cause of the dimming of redshifted light.

### Chapter 16

Infinite Universe

Given that the universe is uniform on the large scale, it is shown that it need not be expanding, and could be static on the large scale. Several different proofs are proffered in support of this conjecture.

### Chapter 17

The Mystery of the Critical Rate of Expansion

The interpretation of the cosmological redshift as being due to the expansion of the universe has given rise to the above named quandary. By applying the principles set out in earlier chapters of this book, the quandary is resolved. The redshift is explained as having a gravitational origin and then by applying the principle of equivalence, the problem is resolved. Further use is made of the principle of equivalence to show that matter can in its own real time, travel faster than the speed of light on Earth.

### Chapter 18

The Problem with Gravitational Waves

Einsteinian gravity waves are required to be propagated at the speed of light. However such a requirement cannot be complied with. It is shown that if gravity is propagated at a finite speed there are catastrophic consequences in the universe. Such consequences are avoided if gravity travels infinitely fast as in the Tempo field theory and as propounded by Newton.