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Fly-by Anomalies

To all mission controllers and flight engineers,

I write this open letter to you on the quandary of fly-by anomalies, so that the explanation afforded by the Tempo field theory may be considered and tested. There is supportive information about the Tempo field theory on the website, and my proffered explanation can, I trust, be readily checked by those who know the background setup for the gathering of data during past fly-bys. There is in addition an upcoming fly-by, that can be observed to further check the explanation. Because I do not have access to matters such as where and how the data was obtained, I can only offer in this open letter a scenario that would, when the Tempo field theory is applied, fit the data. I do this in the hope that those who have access to the necessary background information, will check the data against the theory to see if they are compatible.

When the first fly-bys, Galileo 1, occurred on 8 December 1990, mission engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, noticed an unexpected frequency increase in the post encounter radio Doppler data generated by stations of the NASA Deep Space Network. The increase in frequency, should not have been there and is a complete anomaly. It has been speculated upon, but so far no explanation has been forthcoming. External phenomena have been put forward as a possible cause but the Tempo field model, indicates that the anomaly does not need to turn on some unknown entity or presence in nature, but can be explained by the application of the theory to time differentials occurring during the fly-by. To grasp this idea, we need to be aware that, during the fly-by, there are three pairs of interacting locations, with each pair having a time differential across it. To ascertain the effect of each time differential, it is necessary to analyze it using the Tempo field theory.

The analyses referred to, have to be carried out first at the large or macro level and again at the very small or quantum level. These two levels are required in order to take account of the two ways of measuring the Doppler effect on the radio wave when reflected off the spacecraft. The Doppler effect on the radio wave can be measured at the large or macro scale to find the craft's speed, by measuring the periods between bleeps that have been induced in the wave at regular intervals. It can be used again at the Quantum level to measure the stretching of the wavelength of the radio wave, to find the speed of the craft.

The three time differentials referred to are :-

(I) As between the spacecraft and the point at which the reflected radio wave is received back.

(II) As between the transmitter of the radio wave and the point at which the reflected radio wave is received back.

(III) As between the time dilation on the spacecraft and the mean time on the surface of the Earth.

(1) Consideration of the time differential as between the spacecraft and the point at which the reflected radio wave is received back.

Dealing first with the situation at the macro level, to measure the large scale intervals between the radio bleeps. The spacecraft will experience the time of the Tempo field it is passing through. This time however, it will in addition, be slightly further dilated by the craft's speed. This slight dilation in its time, is of importance for the frequency of the bleeps, but only externally to the craft, in this case, by the observers at the point where the radio wave is received. The reason for this is that on the spacecraft the bleeps will continue to be experienced at the same regular intervals in the spacecraft's time. Onboard there is no difference as between a dilated second and a contracted second, they are just seconds. The only difference the time dilation induced by its speed will make onboard, is a slightly increased measurement for its speed and a slight increase in the speed of light. This increase in the craft's speed and the speed of light for it, are particular to the craft's time and are not relative to time external to it.

To sum up: at the macro level, on the spacecraft, the pulses stay constant but the speed increases, while at the point where the reflected wave is received, the spacecraft's speed is constant but the interval between bleeps increases. The stretching of the interval between bleeps for the receiver on Earth, could be misinterpreted on the approach as a slowing down of the spacecraft, because the blueshift of the bleeps, consequent on its speed, will appear slightly reduced. When the spacecraft is moving away from the Earth, the same stretching of the interval between bleeps could again be misinterpreted, but this time the stretched intervals would appear to be redshift and would falsely suggest an 'increase' in the craft's speed. So unless the dilation of the time between bleeps at the spacecraft is recognized and corrected for, the reflected bleeps when received, will create the illusion that the craft was going faster on the outward trajectory than on the inward, whereas, the pre and post encounter speeds are the same.

If, using quantum physics in conjunction with the Tempo field model, we now measure the speed of the spacecraft by measuring the Doppler effect on the wavelength of the radio wave, it must be the case, that the 'macro-illusion' disappears. The quantum result will agree with the corrected macro result, that is to say, the speeds will agree and will be the same for both the inward and outward trajectories.

It becomes apparent, that in contradistinction to special relativity, when the Tempo field model is applied, the slight dilation of time on the spacecraft due to its speed, will increase for it, the frequency of all electromagnetic waves, which includes the radio wave, without altering the wavelength. This increase of frequency while maintaining the wavelength, will of course, increase the speed of the radio wave for the spacecraft. At the same time, the speed of the spacecraft as measured from onboard, will also go up proportionally. So the redshift calculated using the parameters applicable onboard the spacecraft, and applying them to the simple formula, the speed of the spacecraft over the speed of light onboard the spacecraft, will remain unaltered. The calculation will yield the same result as that on Earth, where there is no increase noted for the speed of the spacecraft, which is fine, because there is no increase in the speed of light. This is explained by the Tempo field model, pointing out that the time on Earth is almost a constant, varying only slightly, giving rise to an almost constant speed for light,- 'c'.

(2) Consideration of the time differential as between the point of transmission of the radio wave and the point at which it is received back.

If we apply the Tempo field model to this time differential, we can envisage the following possibility, to produce the observed results. Let a transmitter be made in a workshop on Earth, so that it will transmit a radio wave at a given number of hertz, that is to say, at a given frequency per second. If the transmitter is then put in a satellite which is sent into a high geocentric orbit, where time is contracted, it will continue to transmit at the set rate per second, but the seconds will be contracted and there will be more of them, relative to an Earth-second. This scenario must not be confused with general relativity, as the scene envisaged requires slightly more energy to be used by the transmitter's batteries in space than on Earth. General relativity on the other hand, breaks the conservation of energy rule, as energy is inexplicably created to provide increased frequency in contracted time.

However, applying the Tempo field theory, if the radio wave is reflected off a distant object, and is reflected back to a receiver that is closer to the mass of the Earth than the original transmitter, it will have a higher frequency, (in dilated time), than the transmitter originally sent, (in contracted time). However, more energy will have been taken from the transmitter's batteries, in contracted time, thereby keeping the energy audit correct.

The explanation is that in the Tempo field theory, the speed and frequency, of light, increase with time dilation, enabling the electromagnetic waves to have a higher frequency while keeping the same wavelength. This seems to be exactly what has been observed, during past fly-bys; for when they occurred mission engineers noticed an unexpected frequency increase in the post encounter radio Doppler data.

It is not difficult to put together a set of circumstances involving a mixture of the macro-illusion and the frequency increase, that will provide the observed statistics. Not only does the Tempo field model allow for the observed data, it also allows for John Anderson's empirical formula derived from such data.

The formula recognizes the variation in the amount of energy in the anomaly for different fly-bys. The empirical formula turns on the fact that the anomaly is less the more symmetric the incoming and outgoing trajectories are about the Earth's equator, (see "Anomalous orbital-energy changes observed during spacecraft fly-bys of Earth" by John Anderson and others, Physical Review Letters, Vol 100, p 091102).

The noted effect can be accounted for by the Tempo field model, in the following way. Firstly, it is common ground that there is the retarding effect from atmospheric drag that must be allowed for. Secondly however, there is the possibility that on a low even approach, the transmitting and receiving points, were closer together, perhaps for logistical reasons, thereby reducing the time differential between them. As a consequence, this would reduce the frequency increase. Such low approach trajectories, which are used when a symmetrical outwards trajectory is required, can create a further effect that reduces the macro-illusion. It occurs if the spacecraft's trajectory is close to the line of the equator and follows the rotation of the Earth. It is well established that when atomic clocks are put on east bound aircraft, their lower speed relative to the surface of the Earth, gives a smaller time differential with stationary clocks on the Earth. The lower the time dilation in the spacecraft, the smaller is the time differential between it and the Earth. As observed from Earth, this reduces the interval between bleeps. The anomaly would therefore be reduced and naturally, the combined effects of these factors will diminish as the angle of approach is increased, in accord with the empirical formula.

(3) Consideration of the time differential as between the spacecraft in orbit and the Earth.

Let us next, consider what happens when the spacecraft swings around the Earth. The situation is then governed by immutable Newtonian orbital dynamics, which are constant laws throughout the Universe, (see Paper on 'The Myth of Dark Matter'). These Newtonian dynamics have to be capable of being calculated equally using the different time dilations and forces measured on the spacecraft and on Earth. The spacecraft's real speed and time, as measured from onboard, govern its orbit. That orbit has also to agree with that observed on Earth by the flight engineers.

This commonality of orbital dynamics, despite different times and forces, is obligatory in the Tempo field model. In that model, there is a symmetry between the value that the craft's gravitational constant has, with its time. The gravitational constant being a necessary factor in the calculation of gravitational force, has a time element built into it, as do all forces. The gravitational constant is therefore, only constant relative to time. As the spacecraft's time dilates or contracts so its value for the gravitational constant will increase or decrease respectively, in harmony with it. Because, in the past, time on Earth has been assumed to be approximately constant, the gravitational constant has also been assumed to have an invariable value and so has this misleading name. It must be remembered that this constant was formulated at a time when the concept of time dilation was still unknown. Many of our constants in use today were derived from pre-time-dilation-physics and are not true constants at all, but because time on Earth varies by such a miniscule amount, we get away with it.

From the perspective of a flight engineer's Earth-time, he will see the spacecraft moving through contracted time compared to his own. He will be looking across a time differential from dilated to contracted time and will therefore, measure a slightly faster speed for the craft than would an onboard observer. Despite the two real speeds being measured by the two observers, the spacecraft can only have the one orbital height. Its contracted time not only reduces its onboard real speed but also gives it a decreased value for its gravitational constant. This enables the craft to have the same orbit as is noted by observers on the ground, whose time requires them to measure it going faster but with a higher gravitational constant. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that it is time that changes, with the consequential adjustment of the values that have a time element in them, so that the principles of orbital dynamics remain immutable.

Two predictions can now be made. Firstly, when the Tempo field adjustments are made to the radio wave observations a common speed, as measured from Earth, will be derived for the inward and outward trajectories. Secondly, confirmation of this speed will be derived from the orbital position taken up by the spacecraft. Using the Tempo field model, all three phases of the fly-by are shown to have the same speed. If these predictions cannot be confirmed from past data, then there will shortly be an opportunity to test them, when the Rosetta spacecraft makes its third and final fly-by around the Earth on the 13th November 2009, at an altitude of almost 2,500 kilometres.