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The Application of the Tempo field theory to astronomical observations that do away with need for dark matter.

Part 1.
The Origin of The Problem.

Over several decades past, a misconception has taken hold among the astronomical community that there is a mysterious invisible substance, out there in the universe, whose presence can only be detected by its gravitational influence. This notion rests entirely on the question: is what they are measuring due to a gravitational effect or is it just a misinterpretation of observations?

The problem arose in the 1930s when the astronomers Oort and Swiky found too much red and blueshift, (referred to generally as redshift) when analysing the spectrograms of light from distant stars in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, they attributed the excess redshift to the Doppler effect, thought to be caused by the orbital speeds of such heavenly bodies. The Doppler effect is the compression (blueshift) or the stretching (redshift) of the light caused by the motion of the source of the light towards or away from the observer. When the astronomers used the blue and redshift to work out the orbital speeds of the heavenly bodies, their calculations indicated that they were moving too fast to be in the positions they were in. This means that applying the normal parameters for our time domain here on Earth, the speed would be such that the star or galaxy should be thrown off into outer space. The results of their calculations led the astronomers to believe that there is some extra unseen matter, the gravitational effect of which keeps the star or galaxy in its orbit. This unseen matter has been given the name of 'dark matter' and among astronomers it is common currency that it was created in the big bang. However, instead of seeking after a notional exotic and invisible dark matter, I believe they will find that the problem is resolved by the application of the adjustments outlined in the following parts of this paper.

For those who are automatically sceptical about new ideas that depart from the main stream of opinion, I would ask them to consider for a moment, the supposed facts, that the 'main streamers' would have us embrace. To subscribe to the notion of dark matter we have to accept the following four postulates. Dark matter cannot emit electromagnetic energy (light). It cannot absorb light or heat. It cannot reflect or scatter or interact with light, heat or any other radiation. But it does have a gravitational effect. The first three we can dismiss as not coming within our current scientific sphere of knowledge. However, we are familiar with gravity and its effects, so let's consider what needs to happen in a gravitational field.

Some years ago there used to be a series of films that featured an invisible man. Apparently, some sort of accident had happened, (I cannot recall just what), that rendered him invisible. The story turned on how he handled the situation until he regained his normal state. One of the things he did, was to wear his normal clothes which could be seen and then to wear gloves and also cover his neck and head with bandages with just holes for his eyes and mouth. He always topped the lot off with a trilby. All this is to point out that his form could then be discerned despite being invisible. His clothes and bandages were 'telltales' of his shape. In the case of notional dark matter, its gravity would cause ordinary matter to accrete to it, filling and surrounding it, which would act as a visible 'telltale'. This ordinary matter would radiate heat, be visible and would also increase the gravitational effect. Such notional areas of dark matter would stand out as plain as a pikestaff. Furthermore, if such dark matter had been formed in the big bang, it would then have captured and bound to itself, vast quantities of radiation, gas and dust that would have made it a perfect nursery for the birth of stars, which would have remained the case up to the present.

As none of these required manifestations are present, we must give up the fanciful notion of dark matter, and merely apply hard nosed physics to the problem of the excess of redshift. We shall go on to show, that well established and proven physics provide an explanation totally in accord with observation.

Part 2.
The Effect of Time Difference.

The first requirement is to take account of the different time dilations within a galaxy cluster as compared with Earth-time (see my previous Paper on Time). [Although I shall use the Tempo field model to do this, similar results will be obtained if the general relativistic model is used]. The galaxy cluster will be emitting a Tempo field, (the time field, emitted outwards from the mass of the galaxy cluster, in accordance with the Tempo field theory, see www.tempofieldtheory.co.uk), which will weaken in proportion to the square of the increase in distance from its centre. The peripheral galaxies will be in much more contracted time than the galaxies near to the cluster's centre. This contracted time at the periphery is the real time for the galaxies there. Allowance must therefore be made when calculating their orbital velocities. The speed an object experiences in contracted time is slower for it than in dilated time. It is therefore imperative when considering these peripheral galaxies to remember that there is a time differential between the contracted time that the galaxy occupies and our more dilated Earth-time. We must measure the galaxy's speed using its own real time and not our own dilated Earth-time. In the past we have incorrectly applied the redshift of their light which is relative to our Earth-time as a measure of the galaxy's speed.

For the dynamics of the cluster contracted time will be its real time, relative to which the galaxies will experience their centrifugal forces and measure their speeds. When we look at the galaxy cluster from our external vantage point, we cannot apply our Earth-time to their Newtonian dynamics. A galaxy near to the centre of the cluster where the cluster is at its densest, will experience dilated time and will feel a strong gravitational force. A peripheral galaxy where the cluster is at its least densest,will feel a weaker gravitational force, being in more contracted time. Depending on whether a galaxy in the cluster enjoyed dilated or contracted time, relative to us, it will be the case that its speed as calculated using Earth-time, would be thought to be respectively too slow or too fast for it to maintain its orbital position. However, if its own real time is applied to Newtonian dynamics, the orbit of each galaxy is perfectly stable. For the galaxy its speed will be such as to cause its centrifugal force to equal the cluster's gravitational pull.

To sum up on this point, the correct and normal speed for a galaxy near to the centre of the cluster, will be slower than we consider to be normal, as measured by our comparative time; while for the contracted real time of the peripheral galaxies, they will be seen by us as going too fast. This time variation must be allowed for as from our comparative time perspective it will tend to have a flattening effect when we plot a rotational curve, wrongly suggesting that the outlying galaxies would be thrown off into outer-space.

It would be incorrect to say that what we observe is due to either an increase in gravity or a modification in Newtonian dynamics. Relative to the real time of an orbiting body, the laws of orbital dynamics are common and immutable throughout the universe. The only thing that varies is the strength of the Tempo field, which causes a time differential as between the Earth's time and the part of the universe under observation. Looking across this time differential gives the false impression that the distant galaxy is orbiting too fast; whereas in its own real time the galaxy is moving at exactly the correct speed required for Newtonian dynamics.

Part 3.
Extra Bending Due to the Time Delay of Light.

Early in 2007 a ring-like astronomical feature comprising distorted images of background galaxies was discovered. This ring of distorted images was put down to the gravitational effect of, and offered as proof for, the existence of invisible dark matter. However, as we have seen above, dark matter does not exist, so let's examine the situation and see what the Tempo field theory predicts.

The ring-like feature is in a galaxy cluster called CL0024+17. It was found by a team led by Myungkook James Jee, now at the University of California. They observed a distortion of the background images of more distant galaxies, which they attributed to the cluster's gravity. The phenomenon formed an ill-defined ring with a radius of about 1.2 million light years, which was interpreted as being due to the presence of a ring of invisible dark matter.

Jee's team take the view that CL0024+17 is in fact two clusters, one hidden behind the other, the ring of dark matter being both created and formed when the clusters initially collided. The dark matter ring has been likened to a ring of debris or smoke that formed at the collision and which is now spreading outwards. So if Jee and his team are correct, what they have seen is just a glimpse of this still-expanding ring.

When we apply the Tempo field theory to the light that they have glimpsed, and using conventional physics alone, we find a sound explanation for the ring supported by experimentation, without the need to invoke mysterious dark matter. The Tempo field theory establishes that the speed of light varies relative to the time dilation of the observer and that time falls off or contracts at the square of the distance from the cluster.(see www.tempofieldtheory.co.uk) It is therefore the case that a ray of light that passes the galaxy cluster at a distance of 1.2 million light years, will be in contracted time, causing a reduction in the speed and frequency of the light in that region of space. The light wave will propagate slower relative to the region's time. Despite such slowing down in contracted time when the wave reaches an observer in more dilated time it will be travelling at the normal speed relative to his time dilation but will just be a little more redshifted. However, because of the additional slowing down of the light when it was in the real time of the region it passed through, the gravitational influence of the cluster will have had longer to act upon and bend it. No increase is required in the strength of the cluster's gravitational effect to achieve this extra bending, nor is there any need for additional dark matter. The extra bending is gained solely by there being a longer travel time for the light wave to pass the cluster.

This explanation requires the light to be slightly delayed when it reaches Earth. Such a delay has been observed by Irwin Shapiro, an American astronomer in the 1960s. The Tempo field theory not only explains the Shapiro time delay of light and distortion ring but goes on to predict that similar distortion rings will be seen without the need for collisions. All that is required is for a massive body such as a galaxy cluster to be in a region of space where there is no interference in the cluster's Tempo field from other neighbouring galaxies. This will allow the distortion of background images to be clearly seen and more easily recognized because of the ring form the collective distortions make at our eyes.

Part 4.
The effect of time dilation due to a body's velocity.

The energy of motion is a factor that needs to be taken into account when considering the orbital speeds of galaxy clusters. What values are given to the orbital speeds of galaxies will depend on whether special and general relativity or the Tempo field theory is applied. Each will give diametrically opposite results. So let us first examine the question from the perspective of special and general relativity.

The energy of motion has two hypothetical effects peculiar to special and general relativity. The first is that energy is supposedly equal to mass. So the orbital motion of a galaxy should increase its mass. This in turn would increase the centrifugal forces on it, which unless cancelled out by an equal and opposite increase in its gravitational energy, would compound the problem that the galaxy was orbiting too fast. The second effect required by General Relativity, is that when a body's time dilates for whatever reason, it is said to cause the frequency of light given off by it to reduce. In other words, the frequency of the light is required to slowdown in dilated time, just like the ticking of a clock. As a consequence of this the wavelength has to increase in order for the light to maintain a constant speed. However, if this were to really happen, we would be unable to see blue shifted light from a body approaching us. The drop in frequency due to the time dilation relative to the speed of the body (redshift), would be exactly equal and opposite to the increase in frequency (blueshift) due to the Doppler effect. The two effects would cancel each other out. This would exclude the possibility of measuring blueshift and is contrary to observation, leaving us to seek an alternative theory.

Let us now re-examine the problem with the aid of the Tempo field theory. This theory improves matters when the following three important points are applied. Firstly, the wavelength of light from a given atom is always the same when viewed locally regardless of the observers time dilation. The galaxies light locally is unaffected by time dilation. Time dilation cannot alter distance, so there cannot be any redshift to cancel out the Doppler blueshift. Secondly, as measured from the galaxy its increased time dilation increases its speed. Thirdly, the dilation of time will increase the frequency of the light as measured locally at or near to the galaxy. These points are derived from the fact that in the Tempo field theory the speed of all rays of light for an observer are the same but the value for the speed is relative to his time dilation. If his time dilates, the speed and frequency of the light for him increases. This principle enables us to see clear images of the galaxies despite the fact that they are all moving at different speeds relative to us. Their application not only allows for a Doppler blueshift to be seen but their symmetry and co-variance means that the blueshift will be exactly the same when calculated using galaxy time or Earth-time. These facts not only allow us to explain blueshift but also confirm the inevitable truth that it is the speed of light that varies with the energy and time dilation of a body and not the body's mass, as advanced in general relativity. In orbital dynamics it is most important to have the correct value for the mass of the orbiting body. If too high a value is used then the orbital speed will appear excessive. In the past general relativity has been applied. In that theory the relativistic effect of the speed of the orbiting body is thought to increase the mass of the body; this error, can now be corrected for by the application of the Tempo field theory. The opposite can now be stated, that mass is a constant and that it is time and the speed of light that are the variables. There is no redshift attributable to the increase in the time differential brought about by the increase in velocity of a body towards an observer.

Part 5.
The Application of The Adjusting Fraction To Doppler Shifted Light.

When considering the light from distant galaxies with a view to ascertaining their orbital speeds, we sometimes use a system of comparisons by using a datum galaxy. We can calculate the speeds of galaxies that are orbiting towards or away from us by comparing them with those that appear stationary because they are moving across our line of sight. There is plenty of room for confusion when we have to make our measurements of a galaxy's distance and orbital speed, taking into account the great distances involved and the effect that travelling such distances has on the light.

To ascertain the orbital speed of a galaxy cluster three of its peripheral galaxies are selected. One galaxy will be moving towards us, another on the opposite side of the cluster will be moving away and the third, the datum galaxy, will be neither moving towards or away but across our line of sight. The light from the galaxy moving towards us will have its light slightly compressed so that its wavelength is shortened, known as Doppler blueshift, while the light from the one moving away will have its wavelength stretched, known as Doppler redshift. The light from the datum galaxy will have no Doppler shift at all. The fact that the light from the datum galaxy has no Doppler shift means that any redshift or frequency drop over and above that caused by the galaxy's own gravity, must be attributable to the effect of travelling across space to us. The distance travelled is so great that the amount of redshift caused by it, known as cosmic redshift, can be considered to be the same for all three galaxies. One could therefore, be forgiven for thinking that the total frequency drop of the datum light, that is to say, its gravitational and cosmic redshifts, could be subtracted from that of the shifted light from the peripheral galaxies and the difference would be the Doppler effect caused by their motion. However, such a calculation would be quite wrong, giving an exaggerated result.

The reason it is wrong is because gravitational and cosmic redshifts have two different causes. The two causes have two distinct effects. Gravitational and Doppler redshift, do not signify a drop in energy. On the other hand, the redshift caused by the light having to cross space, does use energy.

To clarify this point we must bear in mind that electromagnetic energy is a pure form of energy and it is not used up in moving it from one time domain to another. It only loses energy when it is interfered with by an extraneous gravitational force. When the redshift is caused by the gravitational effect of its own light source, there is no loss of energy, there is only an adjustment in the ratio of frequency to the rate of photon flux. So the gross energy of the light, which is the product of frequency and photon flux remains constant. As the frequency or energy of each photon goes down, so the number of photons goes up. This means that such peripheral galaxies as have the same luminosity, will each initially have the same amount of electromagnetic energy as they set out on their journeys across space. The complication comes in when the light crosses space because then it does lose energy but each ray of light will lose the same amount.

To obtain the correct result it is first necessary, using the light from the datum galaxy, to calculate what I have called 'the adjusting fraction'. This is the proportion that the part of the frequency drop attributable to the initial gravitational redshift, bears to the total frequency drop of the light. Then the total frequency drop of the peripheral galaxies should be multiplied by this 'adjusting fraction'. The resultant figure is the frequency drop for the combined effect of gravity, and the rotational speed of the galaxies. We already know the drop for the gravitational effect, as it will be the same for all three galaxies. We can make allowance for the perceived variation in rotational speed due to the factors referred to in the previous parts of this paper. So we can now calculate the true frequency drop attributable to the rotational speed of the galaxies.

Imagine taking a snapshot of the three rays of light produced from three similar atoms, in each of the three galaxies just as they are leaving the gravitational influence of their galaxy cluster. The journey to Earth across space will be about to start. The snapshot will at this point show that they will have different photon energy and photon flux levels due to their respective galaxy's motion relative to us. However, all else being equal, the ratio of photon flux to photon frequency ensures that the light from each galaxy will have the same gross energy as they start out across space. Each of the three rays will thereafter lose energy in the same ratio, as they travel. Nature's symmetry and co-variance ensures that the light from each galaxy will lose energy in the same proportion as the light from the datum galaxy. The light from the three galaxies will at any point on their journey have the same gross energy. Therefore, knowing the frequency of the datum light at the point when it leaves the gravitational influence of its source galaxy cluster and again when it arrives at Earth, we can derive the adjusting fraction. By applying the 'adjusting fraction' to the total frequency drops of the light from the peripheral galaxies, we can calculate their respective frequencies at the point when they each left the gravitational influence of their source galaxies. The frequency adjustment due to their orbital motion can then be derived.

The law of the conservation of energy must be adhered to. We must remember that a light wave is the method of moving pure electromagnetic energy from one place and time to another, which without an external influence, does not admit of any variation in the energy audit. So we can be confident that when we take the snapshot at the point when the three rays of light have just left the gravitational pull of the cluster, they will all have the same energy.

To comprehend the need for the adjusting fraction the key is to remember that there is no loss of electromagnetic energy to the gravity or motion of the galaxy cluster producing it, but there is a loss of energy to other heavenly bodies as they pull the electromagnetic wave to and fro, as it crosses space. Accordingly the proportion of the starting energy to the energy dissipated in crossing space is the same for all three galaxies. Unless the 'adjusting fraction' is applied, the ensuing errors will be progressively larger with distance.

For further reading including the authors ideas on dark matter and dark energy see 'Time - The Hidden Dimensions Of The Missing Physics', available for review and purchase,- together with extensive free summaries on www.tempofieldtheory.co.uk