# Quantum Gravity - The Tempo Field Solution.

**Part 1.
Newton and Einstein.**

What is the agent for gravity that can produce action at a distance? That is the question that Sir Isaac Newton in his 'Principia Mathematica' was obliged to leave open for future generations to ponder upon. We have been pondering upon it now for three hundred years. It was two hundred years before Albert Einstein gave us his metric system. A further one hundred years have elapsed in the knowledge that general relativity is somewhat suspect as its explanation of gravity does not unite the physics of the large with that of the very small. It is still an open question among scientists as to whether gravity is instantaneous or travels at the speed of light.

The question now has moved on somewhat. It has become, what is the agent of gravity and why is Einsteinian gravity close but not quite close enough? For answers we must look to where Einstein got his initial inspiration.

**Part 2.
The Maxwell Equations.**

The problem then and now to be resolved is, how does nature manage to arrange things so that we see clear images at our eyes and the light is not just a blurred jumble? This needs to be the case notwithstanding that we can be moving towards or away from the source of the light and even when the source of the light is also moving around.

Einstein's inspiration at that time was the incontrovertible work of James Clerk Maxwell 1831-1879. In brief the aspect of Maxwell's work that was of great importance and took Faraday's work on electromagnetism forward, was the finding that all electromagnetic waves, which include light, propagate at a constant speed. It was this nugget of information that led to a crucial error being made in special relativity. It was interpreted to mean that all light had to have the same closing speed at the eye of every observer throughout the universe of 300,000 kilometres a second. This was a misunderstanding that placed special relativity in a mathematical straightjacket.

To comply with the mathematics necessary to keep the speed of light constant, the measurement of distance had to be made a variable relative to the measurer's speed. It was thought there was no possible alternative so a high speed traveller was obliged to allow for such bizarre happenings as the universe shrinking in the line of his travel. Accordingly in special relativity the closer the traveller gets to the speed of light, the more the universe shrinks towards zero size. In addition, a fast moving object had to be seen to shrink in its line of travel. If that was not bizarre enough, the mass of the moving object had to increase in proportion to its speed. How these happenings could be brought about was not determined, they were just required mathematically. This is usually a good indication that something is wrong.

**How the Error Came About.**

What is the alternative interpretation that can be given to Maxwell's equations that stops us pulling on the straightjacket? The important thing to note is the date at which Maxwell produced his work. It was 1864 when it was still believed that time was flat and steady, uniformly flowing without variance throughout the universe. Flat Newtonian time was the only option then known. It took another forty years for the theory of time dilation to be developed. Now we know it to be so. Now we know that time can dilate that is, it stretches and contracts, according to a body's energy state. For example an object that is travelling at high speed will have its time dilated. Likewise an object's time will dilate according to its mass or proximity to a massive object.

The importance of all this is that Maxwell's equations, which state light travels at a constant speed, should go on to say:- 'relative to the time dilation of the observer'. This means that the more dilated an object's time, the faster will be the constant for its light. It was the failure to realize this that led us astray into special and general relativity.

**Part 3.
Time and the Speed of Light.**

The next question to be resolved is:- how do we know that the speed and frequency of light, increase with time dilation and do not, as special and general relativity would have us believe, go slower as would a clock? To resolve this we have to realize that there are two constants to take into account. As we have seen above, there is the constant for the speed of light that relates to the external time of the observer but there is also the constant that relates to the internal time of the light wave itself. Light like all quantum wave energy has to operate in its own time. It has to have its own time dimension.

The reason that it can be argued that electromagnetic waves such as visible light need their own time dimension, is because it is well established that if a non-quantum-object were to travel at the speed of light, it would have its time infinitely dilated. Infinite time dilation would mean that time would cease to exist for it for all practical purposes, such as effecting change. The importance of this statement is realized when we consider that change is crucial to the propagation of light, which is a quantum energy wave. Light is an electromagnetic wave and consequently has two constantly interchanging phases. It first has an electric phase that induces a magnetic phase, which in turn induces another electric phase and so on. We know from Maxwell's equations that this interchanging takes place at a constant rate for the quantum energy wave. The light wave must be operating in its own exclusive time.

Given only that light must propagate at a constant rate within its own time dimension, then it can be stated with absolute certainty that, unlike as seen for a clock, observers in dilated time will see the frequency of the light increased. This will result in the speed of the light also increasing. This is all directly counter to special and general relativity.

**Part 4.
Why the Metric Theory is Not Necessary.**

We have now reached a pivotal point in the development of the case for quantum gravity. So it is a good opportunity to pause and compare in qualitative terms general relativity with the Tempo field theory.

In particular I wish to take issue with the explanation for the observed gravitational redshift as set out in general relativity. It is common ground that a massive large planet or star will have stretched time. However, general relativity erroneously contends that the effect of the stretching of time is to slow down the frequency of the light given off by atoms at the surface of the planet. If the speed of the light that is given off by such slowed down atoms is to be kept at 300,000 kilometres a second then the wavelength of the light has to stretch at the surface of the planet. In this theory therefore an observer on Earth sees the light as it is on the surface of the planet. So for the general relativist the redshift he sees has nothing to do with the light travelling from the planet to Earth

Unfortunately, the amount of redshift in this explanation accounts for only half the energy or frequency drop required for the full gravitational effect. Because of the conviction that Maxwell's equations were correctly understood, special relativity was not revised to find the error but a totally new theory was invented to supply the missing half.

The reader will no doubt be familiar with the metric theory of gravity, which involves the warping of space. However, this theory for the notionally missing second half is not only wrong but its physical processes are inexplicable. On the other hand, when the Tempo field theory is applied to the observed gravitational redshift, we find that the total amount of the energy is accounted for and there is no missing half. The notional missing half is simply due to the incorrect inversion of the frequency adjustment. General relativity has the frequency of the light going down when in reality, as we have seen, it goes up. This inevitably gives a fifty per cent short fall in the calculation of the gravitational effect. General relativity is inherently incapable of accounting for more than half the total energy from the redshift.

**Part 5.
The Tempo Field Theory and Quantum Gravity.**

In the Tempo field theory the gravitational redshift can be explained in full. The stretching of the wave is caused by the light transmitted from the large planet crossing the time differential that exists between the planet and the Earth. In so doing, it has to pass from the large planet's dilated time to the Earth's more contracted time. This is straightforward enough and is readily understood. However, in the Tempo field theory for a given wavelength the light will have a high frequency in the dilated time of the large planet and a lower frequency in the Earth's contracted time. In crossing the variable time field between the two planets, the light is gradually stretched. The amount of the stretching is in proportion to the total frequency drop as between the large planet and the Earth. The stretching therefore represents the mean average of the frequency drop, that is to say, the average as between zero and the full amount. This is of course, one half of the full amount of the frequency drop. The frequency drop represents the energy required to produce the gravitational effect. So if we compare light of the same given wavelength produced on a gravitationally massive planet, (planet-light), and on Earth, (Earth-light), we find that the planet-light will be red shifted when it is received on Earth. However, because of the initial frequency difference in the planet-light compared with the Earth-light, the amount of frequency drop that produced the redshift in the planet-light on its journey to Earth, is exactly twice the frequency drop required to alter the Earth-light to match it. There is no warping of space.

**Part 6.
Time the Agent of Gravity.
The Mechanism of Quantum Gravity.**

**How does the Quantum Gravitational effect work?**

We must remember that in quantum physics matter in its smallest form may be regarded as either a quantum energy wave or a particle. It has been shown in the Tempo field theory that no two adjacent points in the Tempo field have the same time dilation, unless it is at a Lagrangean point. It is therefore the case that light or matter in the form of an internally constant quantum wave that is situate in the Tempo field, must have one side of it in slightly more dilated time than the other. Accordingly, from the external perspective of the Tempo field the quantum wave will have a higher frequency on the side that is in the more dilated time. Similarly from the Tempo field perspective, it will be the case that the quantum wave will have more energy on that side. It will therefore propagate itself through the Tempo field more energetically on one side than the other. The resulting propensity to propagate and move in that direction is what we call gravity.

The movement of the quantum energy wave will always take place towards the local point of maximum time dilation in the Tempo field. This is what in the past we have called the centre of gravity. The effect explains the pulling in of the sides of an object, and allows for observed tidal forces.

In conclusion, I predict that as soon as we are able to make precise enough measurements of gravitational effect, the measurement of such tidal forces will confirm this theory. This could be done for example, when a full solar eclipse takes place. When the Sun, Moon and Earth are all in line, the maximum gravitational effect will be felt instantaneously, approximately 1.3 seconds ahead of the visible totality of the eclipse. This will show that the gravitational effect is instantaneous, being caused by time, and does not travel at the speed of light as is required under general relativity.

For further reading see 'Time - The Hidden Dimensions Of The Missing Physics' by Frank Atkinson, available for purchase and review with extensive free summaries on www.tempofieldtheory.co.uk