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Part II

The Revolutionary Consequences of Applying the Law of The Conservation of Energy to the Tempo Field.

When we see light from a massive star where the time is dilated, we observe that the light from it is always red shifted.  In the past the effect has been explained in two ways.  In both cases it was thought from general relativity that the frequency of the light was slowed down on the surface of the star and that this effect would require the wavelength of the light to lengthen.  Latterly it was thought that this lengthening of the wave could be caused on its way from the star to us, as if it had to do work to get away from the star's gravitational influence.  The application of the law of the conservation of energy establishes that both these explanations are flawed.  The conservation law does not allow energy to be created or destroyed.  Compliance with this law is therefore, a prerequisite for any explanation of the gravitational redshift of light.

There must be no suggestion that electromagnetic energy can be created by merely shining light from a large star to a smaller planet, or destroyed by shining the light in the reverse direction.  However, special relativity gives rise to such stumbling blocks, where the frequency of light supposedly reduces in dilated time.

To correct for this, it is necessary to consider the comparative amounts of time dilation of the star with that of the planet.  To take an exaggerated example, let time on the star be twice as dilated as that on the planet.  This means that, in comparative terms, one dilated star second is worth two contracted planet seconds.  Now let light be transmitted, in accordance with general relativity, from the star to the planet.  The supposedly low frequency light from the star, propagated in the equivalent of two planet seconds, is received on the planet in just one second.  This inadvertent mistake would effectively double the amount of the transmitted energy.  Naturally, this is not allowed.

There is only one way of resolving the problem.  While it is deceptively simple, it has monumental repercussions in both cosmology and quantum physics.  It goes to the very foundation of the structure of the Universe.   It gives the answer to quantum gravity and reveals the previously hidden energy for quantum tunnelling.  It is, that instead of the frequency of a quantum wave such as light going down in dilated time, it goes up.  It goes up by as much as special relativity had it going down.  So the overall drop in frequency of the light from the star to the planet will be twice as much as previously thought.

The comparative energy audit between the frequency or energy of the light from one dilated second when it starts out from the star, is exactly the same as when it is received over two seconds on the planet.  In comparative terms the energy in one dilated star second is shown to be equal to two contracted planet seconds,

The proof of this can be readily shown when we remember the findings of James Clerk Maxwell.  He established in 1864, through his equations that electromagnetic waves are in a continuous state of change being, electric and magnetic phases.

Most importantly he showed the rate of this change to be constant within the wave and the atom producing it.  However, in 1864 it was not appreciated that an external observer's time could vary by being either contracted or dilated.  Maxwell was therefore, unable to take the further logical step and say, that when a constant oscillation is viewed by an external observer in dilated time, he will measure the rate of the oscillation to be faster than would an observer in more contracted time

To illustrate this with an analogy, it is roughly similar to an observer on the star and an observer on the planet, looking through telescopes at a second planet.  They are trying to measure the speed at which the ocean waves are rolling in to the shore on the second planet.  The waves are rolling in at a constant speed relative to the time of the second planet.  However, the two observers being in different time domains, will disagree over the speed and frequency of the waves, which they see through their telescopes.

The observer on the planet with contracted time will, through his telescope, measure the waves passing across a given distance on the second planet in say, two seconds, which will be a comparatively slow speed and frequency.  On the other hand, the observer on the star in dilated time will see the waves moving across the same distance in just one second and therefore, at a faster speed and higher frequency.

The fact that the frequency of a given wavelength of light varies with the time dilation of the observer, means that the speed of light has to vary also.  It varies in the sense that it alters as the observer's time domain alters, but in accordance with Maxwell's equations, it remains constant within that time domain.  Accordingly, the essential constant closing speed for all light with the observer is maintained.  This will be the case, notwithstanding any motion of the observer and/or light source,

The changes set out thus far in this model whilst modest in themselves and readily provable are, nonetheless, a paradigm shift in cosmology and quantum physics.  In particular it does away with the need for Einstein's metric theory of gravity, which requires the warping of a construct known as space-time.  This fundamental and radical change to our approach to the subject provides the answer to quantum gravity and can be readily explained in the following manner.

As previously mentioned,  light that passes from a massive heavenly body to the Earth is red shifted.  Einstein in his equations, lowered the frequency or energy of the quantum light wave to agree with the observed redshift.  We now know, however, that the correct procedure is the reverse of this.  The frequency of light from a massive body, is higher than here on Earth, by the same amount, as Einstein has it lower.

The redshift is simply the average stretching of the light wave across the total frequency drop, as between the large heavenly body and the Earth.  This mean average of the stretching of the light wave, that we call the redshift, will always equate to half the energy of the total frequency drop.  There never was any missing energy that had to be accounted for to explain the bending of light.  There was no need to invent the metric theory.

Click here to read Part 3 of this Digest, on 'More on the Structure of Time and the Tempo Field.