# Part VIII

**How to Exceed the Constant Speed 'c' of Light**

**The expansion of the concept of sub-luminary flight.**

For several decades now, scientists have pondered over whether it is possible to travel faster than the speed of light. We are approaching the period in our scientific development when we can theorize upon the subject with some degree of confidence, and in the expectation that our practical capabilities will catch up within a few years and allow us to put theory into practice.

Before examining further the subject of high speed travel it is necessary to make clear that the postulates relied on in this Paper, are deduced from the author's Tempo Field Theory. That theory is more particularly set out in the author's book, 'Time - The Hidden Dimensions of the Missing Physics', and all references in this Paper are references to that book.

In the model developed in that book, the speed of light is shown not to be the constant 'c' but a variable dependant on the time dilation of the observer. Unlike in special relativity, the speed of light is no longer required to be a constant 300,000 kilometres a second in all inertial frames, consequently, the speed of bodies are no longer required to be universally, capped at that speed, (see Chapters 3 and 4). So to arrive at an understanding of high speed travel a grasp of these features is an essential precondition, for which time dilation is the pivotal element. The first of such essential features calls for an understanding of the conditions that determine the speed of light. The second demands a grasp of the parameters that control the speed attainable by matter particles.

**The Speed of Light.**

For an observer the speed of light for him is commensurate with his time dilation, (see Introduction and Appendix 1). An observer's time dilation is controlled by his energy state. It is common ground that such energy state is influenced by the body's proximity to a large mass or to its increase in its kinetic energy through motion. It can also be caused by an influx of heat, radiation or chemical energy.

The universally accepted equations of James Clerk Maxwell, established that all rays of light travel at a constant speed. However, these brilliant equations were put forward at a point in our scientific history when it was believed that time was invariable. It was thought in those days that time was flat Newtonian time and did not vary. This means that in the light of our current knowledge of time, a more accurate interpretation of the Maxwell equations, is that light travels at a constant speed commensurate with the time dilation of the observer or body, measuring the speed.

As is unquestionably required, this modified interpretation continues to fit perfectly with the work of A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley. Their experiments showed that all rays of light have a common speed, notwithstanding that the observer is moving relative to the source of the light. It is also in conformity with the work of Willem De Sitter, who showed that all rays of light have a common closing speed, notwithstanding, that the source of the light is moving relative to the observer. Furthermore, it does not conflict with the speed of light being measured to be 300,000 kilometres a second, as this is merely the speed of light commensurate with the time dilation at the surface of the Earth, (see Appendix 1).

**The Speed of Matter Particles.**

When determining the speed of objects, there are two alternative methods that can be applied. Either one is equally valid in its own right. The first is to measure the speed relative to the object's own time. The second is to measure the speed relative to Earth time.

Let us consider the first method, where the speed of an object is measured from the object itself. In such circumstances the object's speed is calculated using its own real time. It is common ground that we all enjoy our own time dilation. It is universally acknowledged throughout the scientific community, that if identical clocks were carried by everyone, they would all go at different rates dependant on our state. However, the time of each person or thing is equally valid. There is no such thing as a preferred time. It must also be borne in mind, that as a consequence of the speed of light no longer being held to be a constant, the measurement of distance is no longer required to vary with speed, as in special relativity. So for example, a fast moving spaceship will calculate its speed by reference to a universal standard distance, travelled in its dilated real time. Accordingly, as the spaceship's time dilates so its speed is free to increase without limit.

Let us now consider the second method. The speed of an object, as measured from Earth, is calculated by using the same universal standard of distance but, in this instance, Earth-time is used to measure the interval taken to travel that same distance. Because the Earth's real time is contracted compared with the spaceship's, an observer on Earth will calculate the spaceship's speed to be slower than does the pilot. The increasing difference in the degree of time dilation as between the Earth and the spaceship will ultimately limit the speed attainable by the spaceship, as measured from Earth. Let us examine this phenomenon a little further.

On Earth, the variation in time dilation is so small and the speed of light so great that scientists with their present instruments, are, for the time being, unable to measure any variation in the speed of light. The speed of light has therefore been thought to be a constant at 299,792.5 kilometres a second. Accordingly, this is the approximate limiting speed for all objects as observed from Earth. The actual cause of this limit can be readily deduced from the Tempo field theory. It is common ground, that as measured from Earth, an object travelling at that speed would have its time infinitely dilated. Therefore, in the improbable event of a spaceship having sufficient energy, to approach this limiting speed and time dilation, an observer on Earth can rationalise the situation using the Tempo field theory. He will note that the motors on the spaceship will appear to be going slower and slower as the spaceship's time dilates more and more, towards an infinite value. He will see that as the spaceship approaches the speed of light, its motors will, relative to him, gradually run slower as its time stretches, until they almost cease to have any measurable degree of function relative to him. At this point the spaceship will have almost ceased to have any acceleration relative to him and will appear to be travelling at a steady speed just below 299,792.5 kilometres a second. He will, however, readily appreciate that the motors will be operating normally on the spaceship in their own dilated real time, in which it will continue to accelerate uniformly and will be travelling at almost an infinite speed. It is important to note here, that this gradual reduction in the spaceship's rate of acceleration, relative to Earth, is due entirely to the time dilation of the spaceship and has nothing to do with a notional increase in its mass, as special relativity would have us believe,(see Chapter 2). It is by accurately attributing the spaceship's reduction in acceleration to the stretching of its time, in accordance with the Tempo field theory, and not, as previously believed, to a notional increase in its mass, that admits of two speeds being measured for it.

**The application of the new theory.
**

The necessary physics, deduced from the Tempo field theory,that explains the interaction between the speed of light and the speed of the spaceship, can be expressed as follows:

The variation in the measurement of the speed of light is due to the variation in the dilation of the observer's time, which can, in turn, be dilated by an influx of energy, (see Introduction and Appendix 1). The energy here is kinetic, from the increase in the speed of the spaceship. In short, if you increase the degree of time dilation of the spaceship you will also increase the speed of light for it, (see Introduction, Chapters 2, 8, 23 and Appendix 1). Not only does this adjust the speed of light for the spaceship but it is achieved without prejudicing the pilot's ability to accelerate the spaceship infinitely. Regardless of what degree of time dilation the spaceship enjoys, it is always its real time, within which it is free to accelerate without limit. Subject only to an adequate fuel supply, the spaceship's motors can be set to constant drive and they will eventually accelerate the spaceship up to an infinite speed. The mass of the spaceship remaining constant throughout, as does its ability to measure distance. So paradoxically the pilot can fly the spaceship with limitless acceleration while maintaining sub-luminary travel at all times. It is not possible for the spaceship to outrun the speed of light for it. The faster the spaceship travels the more dilated becomes its time, with the consequence that the speed of its light becomes faster. The spaceship can in this way, enjoy limitless acceleration without exceeding the speed of light for it, (see Chapters 2 and 3).

**Some of the features of high-speed travel.**

The postulate that matter particles cannot travel faster than light remains true and inviolable. However, it can now be confidently asserted that as measured from onboard the spaceship, it is able to accelerate without limit relative to its steadily dilating real time. As the time in the spaceship dilates, the speed of light, as measured from it, progressively increases in unison with it. Consequently the spaceship is always relegated to second place in the light race. Subject only to an adequate fuel supply, the spaceship's speed has the potential to be infinite and to dilate its time infinitely. The dilation of the spaceship's time has some significant consequences. The first is, if the people in the spaceship do not intend returning to Earth, then they can travel over vast distances while ageing very slowly. Family and friends left behind on Earth will age and die, while those on the spaceship will age only a little. It might well be that this slow ageing compared to that on Earth is of no concern if, for example, the people on the spaceship are escaping from some catastrophe on Earth, which prevents them from returning. However, should the spaceship have travelled very close to the speed of light on Earth for say five or ten spaceship years, several tens of thousands of years would have passed on Earth. Should the spaceship return to Earth, they would find that their mission would be no more than a footnote in the annals of Earth history. The people on the spaceship would be so backward in comparison with the people on Earth that they would be considered curiosities, something like Neanderthals would be to us today.

The second feature of such travel, is that onboard computers would need to be designed to operate by light or some other quantum means, so that they will have the built-in advantage of being able to gradually perform faster and faster keeping up with the speed of light for the spaceship. So the high speed navigation, required to control the course of the spaceship and which would be beyond human capabilities using none quantum instruments, can always be coped with by quantum computers controlling the auto-pilot.

A feature that is counterintuitive is that for the pilot of the spaceship who is flying it in a straight line away from Earth, will receive all electromagnetic wave signals instantaneously. So if an observer on the spaceship were to look at a clock on the receding Earth through a telescope, it would show exactly the same time as his onboard clock. Likewise, if birthday greetings were sent to him by radio, at twelve noon on his thirtieth-Earth-birthday, he would receive them exactly at twelve noon on his thirtieth-spaceship-birthday. This will be the case, notwithstanding, that the spaceship may have been travelling away from Earth, in a straight line, for several years.

The explanation for this is that there are two factors to be taken into account concerning events happening on Earth, as seen from the spaceship. The first is the dynamic effect of the dilation of the spaceship's time due to its speed of recession. Relative to the observer on the spaceship, this will have the effect of speeding up his perception of events on Earth. The second effect is kinematic. Due to the increasing time the light takes to reach the spaceship from Earth, the images will be slowed down again. The result is that because the two effects are both due to the same cause, that is to say, the motion of the spaceship, they will exactly cancel each other out, leaving him to see events at the same rate as if he were still on Earth.

**Old flaws with new remedies and proofs.**

It would be helpful to conclude this Paper on high speed travel, with how the old special and general relativity dealt with the subject compared with the author's new Tempo field model. Thus far the subject has been dealt with by broad scientific argument developed from first principles, as more particularly set out in the author's book 'Time - The Hidden Dimensions of the Missing Physics'. There are three points in particular that show how special and general relativity are flawed and illustrate the correctness of the principles in the Tempo field theory.

**(I)** In the Tempo field theory the measurement of distance is not a variable, so one speed only can be measured from onboard the spaceship. On the other hand, in special relativity one's ability to measure distance varies with one's speed. In that theory, the faster one travels, the shorter become distances in the line of travel. However, it is also common ground with all scientists that such foreshortening does not occur to distances within the spaceship. The measurements of the inside of the spaceship remain the same as they were when on Earth, by reason of the fact that the crew who are taking the measurements are not moving relative to it.

Unfortunately, this duality in the measurement of distance in special relativity has the impossible consequence of causing the crew on the spaceship to measure two speeds for it at the same time. For this impossible situation supposedly to take place all the crew need to do is look out of the front window of the spaceship to take one reading and out of the side window for the other. This is explained by the fact that if they measure the speed through the front window, where Einsteinian relativists consider the distances are foreshortened, then the speed must be somewhat slowed down. On the other hand, the speed can equally well, be measured by reference to the inside of the spaceship. All that is required is for observers at the front and rear of the spaceship to measure the time interval taken to pass the same point seen through the side window. Because the observers are a known distance apart, which is not foreshortened and the time dilation is the same as for the first measurement, a faster speed will be calculated. This impossible outcome demonstrates that relativity is a flawed concept and must give way to the Tempo field theory.

**(ii)** In the Tempo field theory the spaceship is free to accelerate without limit and to experience all the effects of high speed travel. The situation is quite the reverse under general relativity. In that theory, the spaceship cannot go faster than 300,000 kilometres a second the speed of light on Earth. As we saw above, this is achieved by the foreshortening of distance when the spaceship is travelling at high speed, although, the distances are restored to their proper values when the spaceship stops relative to the Earth. When this somewhat bizarre happening takes place, the crew must then realise that they have been travelling faster than originally thought. However, they have not felt any of the appropriate effects of the faster travel. They will not have felt the necessary G forces when accelerating in a straight line or when turning. Clearly this situation is insupportable and once again illustrates that the relativity theory is flawed.

**(lll)** The fact that general relativity purports to limit the speed of the spaceship to 300,000 kilometres a second, is a breach of the universal laws of the conservation of momentum and angular momentum. When considering the conservation laws, care must be taken to distinguish between the conditions as seen from Earth and those as seen from the spaceship. From Earth the relativistic view of matters does not mathematically offend the laws. The spaceship's speed is limited to 300,000 kilometres a second but special relativity requires the mass of the spaceship to notionally go up to compensate. It is by this fiction that mathematical lip service can be paid to the laws, to prevent them, in numerical terms, from being broken. However, the situation in the spaceship is quite different and precludes any mathematical fiction. For example, it is common ground that the crew in the spaceship will be well aware that their masses do not alter. This view is even supported by the relativity postulates admitting, that, as seen from the spaceship, its speed will be kept to 300,000 kilometres a second by adjusting the measurement of distance and not by increasing its mass. Therefore, when applying the relativistic rules for onboard the spaceship, the conservation laws are not complied with, neither actually or mathematically. Energy from the motors continues to be poured into the system, which should increase the spaceship's kinetic energy. However, it fails to do this fully, as the adjusting factor allowed for on the spaceship, to control its speed, is the shortening of the measurement of distance. That this is not an acceptable adjusting factor is amply demonstrated when the spaceship comes to rest, relative to Earth and all distances immediately revert back to normal. Furthermore, when the distances notionally spring back to normal, the clocks in the spaceship do not, even notionally, spring forward. The period when the spaceship enjoyed dilated time is not suddenly restored to its longer and more contracted value. So by taking the travel time as shown on the onboard clocks, together with the readjusted distance, it can be seen that the spaceship must have travelled faster than originally calculated. None of these flaws are to be found in the Tempo field theory, so relativity must give ground yet again.

Click here to read Part 9 of this Digest, on 'The Cosmological Redshift Revised'.