# Part III

More on the Structure of Time and the Tempo Field.

Time Dimensions.

In this new model for time it is essential to wrench one's mind away from the concept that all physical phenomena take place with the same results in all inertial frames. It was this misconception that formed a straightjacket for Einstein's thinking, for it holds good at the macro level only. Physical phenomena at the quantum or micro level vary relative to the external time dilation they are in and, in addition, are experienced relative to the time dilation of the observer. Phenomena at the quantum level comprise quantum wave energy and electromagnetic wave energy, which includes light. We can modify one of Einstein's thought experiments to illustrate this.

Imagine someone bouncing a ball in a railway train that is moving at a fast but uniform speed. Because the train is moving very fast, say at a substantial proportion of the speed of light, its time will be measurably dilated. The person bouncing the ball will experience it bouncing at the same apparent rate and energy as when the train was stationary and time was contracted. An observer on the embankment however, will see him bouncing the ball in slow-motion.

Let one second of the train's dilated time, when in motion, equal two seconds of the train's contracted time, when stationary. In order to comply with the law of the conservation of energy, an energy audit must show that the same amount of energy is required to bounce the ball for one second when the train is in motion, as for two seconds when the train is stationary. This means that in both cases, the sum of the ball's large scale or macro energy plus its quantum or micro energy must be the same. So if the ball bounces once per second, then the macro energy in the bounce in dilated time is comparatively less by being stretched over the equivalent of two contracted seconds. One bounce in dilated time being half the macro energy of the two bounces in contracted time. However, in dilated time the reduction of the macro energy is made up for by a doubling of the ball's quantum energy. Quantum energy here is the frequency of the quantum energy waves, which make up the matter in the ball. It can also be the frequency of an electromagnetic wave such as light. The energy distribution is reversed from the perspective of the contracted time. There the macro energy is twice that of the dilated time, but the quantum energy is halved. So in grossed up comparative terms the energy audit gives the same result for both dilated and contracted time.

In order for the dilation of an observer's time, as on the fast moving train, to increase his measurement of the frequency of quantum waves, such as light, I submit, the light itself must have a self-contained and constant time dimension of its own. It is an essential condition that the internal time of the quantum wave is separate and independent from the time dimension of the observer. This can be accounted for if the Tempo exists in two distinct forms. These forms are 'time dimensions', having the same wave structure but are totally independant and so do not interact with one another.

The first of the two dimensions is that which controls the internal structure and frequency of the atom and the electromagnetic wave it produces. This allows the atom and wave to maintain, internally, a constant frequency and rate of quanta. This frequency and quantization are particular to the class of atom. It cannot be perceived externally to the atom or wave. It controls and keeps constant its internal state and is independant of external time.

The second dimension is external to the atom. It is transmitted outwards from it as a Tempo, which as we have seen is a virtual standing wave of short wavelength. As such it will be able to shine through matter and interact with like waves, acting in concert to form a Tempo field. This variable Tempo field, will form an unbroken continuum throughout the universe.

Such a model means that the universe can be described as flat and does not curl round on itself to form a four dimensional hypersphere. A distinctive feature of the Tempo field, is that it is transmitted instantaneously. Time cannot take time to travel. This is of importance when considering gravitational effect, for I submit that time is the agent for gravity, which means that gravity also, is instantaneous, contradicting general relativity.

Because there are two separate time dimensions in the Tempo field structure, the one for the light wave that governs its internal function, enables the wave to propagate at a constant rate. The constancy of the light wave being due to a time dimension separate from all observers, it must be the case that an observer's time governs how he particularly perceives it. The speed and frequency of the light for him, will have a value particular to his state and therefore his time dilation. The more dilated his time within his time dimension, the higher he will measure the frequency and speed of light.

If the light's source is in a separate inertial frame to that of the observer, with a different degree of time dilation, the light will be blue or red shifted when received by him. The blue or redshift can result from either gravity or motion. If it is due to gravity the blue or redshift will depend respectively, on whether the time of the source of the light, is more contracted or dilated than his own. If it is due to motion, the light will be blue shifted if the distance between the source and receiver is reducing, and red shifted if it is increasing. On the other hand, for a given wavelength the rate of emission of quanta per second will not vary. Each quantum will however, have more energy, as measured from dilated time. This results in a dilated second having the same number of quanta as a contracted second but each quantum will have more energy, expressed as a higher frequency.

The fact that the energy contained in a quantum of an electromagnetic wave is covariant with the time dilation of its source, and also with that of the observer, keeps it within the conservation law. The postulate that the amount of energy contained in a photon or quantum is proportional to the degree of external macro time dilation at its source, is of crucial significance in quantum physics. It explains phenomena that had previously been inexplicable, due to the inability to account for sufficient energy in general relativity. This landmark in the advance of quantum physics allows us to progress to a theory of quantum gravity.

Click here to read Part 4 of this Digest, on 'The Function of Time'.